His first task was to restore order after the Rum Rebellion of 1808 against the previous Governor.
Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation.
He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. Phillip described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".
Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788.Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders.Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.