The Sichuan Basin and adjacent areas of the Yangtze watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the later years of the Shang in northern China.
Shu continues to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the Shu of the Three Kingdoms period, and Former Shu and Later Shu of the Ten Kingdoms period.
The region was torn by constant warfare and economic distress as it was besieged by the Tibetan Empire.
In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Sichuan became the centre of the Shu kingdom with its capital in Chengdu founded by Wang Jian.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south. In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu.
Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the First Emperor's unification of China under the Qin Dynasty.